Using an Integrated 5D & location-based planning system in a large hospital construction project

Tanmaya Kala, Olli Seppänen, Claire Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Hypotheses: H1: model-based constructability based on a parallel construction model
should identify more constructability issues than traditional model-based
constructability processes. H2: model-based quantity takeoff should take less time
than manual take-off. H3: integrated location-based scheduling should enable
schedule optimization over CPM–based approaches, resulting in shorter overall
duration with more continuous resource use.
Purpose: The goal of this paper is to present the case study of Kaiser Oakland hospital project, the largest known implementation of integrated 5D systems combined with location-based planning.
Research Design/Method: Parallel processes were implemented in the project. The results of integrated 5D system were compared to the results of traditional constructability, estimating and scheduling processes.
Findings: H1 and H3 were supported in the preconstruction of foundations. Over 200 additional constructability issues were identified using the construction model. Location-based scheduling enabled the planning of continuous work for subcontractors while compressing the duration of Foundation phase by six weeks. Contrary to the hypothesis H2 there was no time saving benefits related to quantity take-off, although there were some qualitative benefits in terms of better communication.
Limitations: Only Foundation phase was analyzed. Parallel processes are a form of waste.
Implications: Integrated 5D system was shown to provide better results for constructability and scheduling.
Value for practitioners: Practitioners can learn from the challenges discussed in the paper. Use of an integrated 5D system has not been described in technical literature before using a case study of this size.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)102-112
Publication statusPublished - 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • location-based management
  • constructability
  • 5D model
  • flowline schedule


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