Use of amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa in extruded corn-based snacks

Jose Martin Ramos Diaz*, Satu Kirjoranta, Seppo Tenitz, Paavo A. Penttilä, Ritva Serimaa, Anna Maija Lampi, Kirsi Jouppila

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule) are pseudocereals regarded as good gluten-free sources of protein and fiber. A co-rotating twin screw extruder was used to obtain corn-based extrudates containing amaranth/quinoa/kañiwa (20% of solids). Box-Behnken experimental design with three independent variables was used: water content of mass (WCM, 15-19%), screw speed (SS, 200-500rpm) and temperature of the die (TEM, 150-170°C). Milled and whole samples were stored in open headspace vials at 11 and 76% relative humidity (RH) for a week before being sealed and stored for 9 weeks in the dark. Hexanal content was determined by using headspace gas chromatography. Extrudates containing amaranth presented the highest sectional expansion index (SEI) (p < 0.01) while pure corn extrudates (control) presented the lowest SEI and greatest hardness (p < 0.01). SEI increased with increasing SS and decreasing WCM. In storage, whole extrudates exposed to 76% RH presented the lowest formation of hexanal. This study proved that it was possible to increase SEI by adding amaranth, quinoa and kañiwa to pure corn flour. The evaluation of lipid oxidation suggested a remarkable stability of whole extrudates after exposure to high RH.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-67
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cereal Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Amaranth
  • Extrusion
  • Kañiwa
  • Quinoa


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