Ultrafast, high modulation depth terahertz modulators based on carbon nanotube thin films

Maria G. Burdanova, Gleb M. Katyba, Reza Kashtiban, Gennady A. Komandin, Edward Butler-Caddle, Michael Staniforth, Aram A. Mkrtchyan, Dmitry V. Krasnikov, Yuriy G. Gladush, Jeremy Sloan, Albert G. Nasibulin, James Lloyd-Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The development of THz technology and communication systems is creating demand for devices that can modulate THz beams rapidly. Here we report the design and characterisation of high-performance, broadband THz modulators based on the photo-induced transparency of carbon nanotube films. Rather than operating in the standard modulation mode, where optical excitation lowers transmission, this new class of modulators exhibits an inverted modulation mode with an enhanced transmission. Under femtosecond pulsed illumination, modulation depths reaching +80% were obtained simultaneously with modulation speeds of 340 GHz. The influence of the film thickness on the insertion loss, modulation speed and modulation depth was explored over a frequency range from 400 GHz to 2.6 THz. The excellent modulation depth and high modulation speed demonstrated the significant potential of carbon nanotube thin films for ultrafast THz modulators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-252
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • terahetz modulator
  • carbon nanotubes
  • THz-TDS
  • ultrafast devices


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