Ultimate Accuracy of Frequency to Power Conversion by Single-Electron Injection

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We analyze theoretically the properties of the recently introduced and experimentally demonstrated converter of frequency to power. The system is composed of a hybrid single-electron box with normal island and superconducting lead, and the detector of the energy flow using a thermometer on a normal metal bolometer. Here, we consider its potential for metrology. The errors in power arise mainly from inaccuracy of injecting electrons at the precise energy equal to the energy gap of the superconductor. We calculate the main systematic error in the form of the excess average energy of the injected electrons and its cumulants, and that due to subgap leakage. We demonstrate by analytic and numerical calculations that the systematic error in detection can, in principle, be made much smaller than the injection errors, which also, with proper choice of system parameters, can be very small, <1%, at low enough temperature. Finally, we propose a simplified configuration for metrological purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number037702
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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