We report the studies on optical properties of a GaN/AlGaN heterostructure with a surface metal grating. The fabricated structures were optimized for the observation of 2D plasmon resonances in the spectral range of 2–5 THz. The spectra of the equilibrium optical transmission were experimentally investigated and the 2D plasmon resonance was found. The current-voltage characteristics of the grating sample and a reference sample without grating were measured and the dependence of the hot 2D electron temperature on electric field was established. Terahertz electroluminescence was studied in both samples in the sensitivity band of the Ge:Ga detector in electric fields of up to 400 V/cm. It has been shown that, due to the contribution of nonequilibrium 2D plasmons, the integral photoresponse signal for the sample with a surface metal grating increases 2–4 times as compared with the sample without grating, where the terahertz emission is due only to hot 2D electrons.