Two-class freeway traffic regulation to reduce congestion and emissions via nonlinear optimal control

Cecilia Pasquale*, Ioannis Papamichail, Claudio Roncoli, Simona Sacone, Silvia Siri, Markos Papageorgiou

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this paper is the regulation of freeway traffic by means of optimal control techniques. A first innovative aspect of the proposed approach is the adopted objective function in which, besides the reduction of traffic congestion (which is typically considered in traffic control schemes), the minimization of traffic emissions is also included. Moreover, a multi-class framework is defined in which two classes of vehicles (cars and trucks) are explicitly modelled, and specific control actions for each vehicle class are sought. This results in the formulation of a multi-objective optimal control problem which is described in the paper and for which a specific solution algorithm is developed and used. The algorithm exploits a specific version of the feasible direction algorithm whose effectiveness is demonstrated in the paper by means of simulation results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)85-99
Number of pages15
JournalTransportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Freeway traffic control
  • Ramp metering
  • Traffic emissions
  • Two-class traffic model and control


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