Twinbase: Open-source server software for the Digital Twin Web

Juuso Autiosalo, Joshua Siegel, Kari Tammi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)
429 Downloads (Pure)


Digital twins are expected to form a network, a 'Digital Twin Web,' in the future. Digital Twin Web follows a similar structure to the World Wide Web and consists of meta-level digital twins that are described as digital twin description documents and distributed via Digital Twin Web servers. Standards must be established before the Digital Twin Web can be used efficiently, and having an easily accessible server implementation can foster the development of those standards. Twinbase is an open-source, Git-based Digital Twin Web server developed with user-friendliness in mind. Twinbase stores digital twin documents in a Git repository, modifies them with Git workflows, and distributes them to users via a static web server, from which the documents can be accessed via a client library or a regular web browser. A demo server is available at and new server instances can be initialized free-of-charge at GitHub via its browser interface. Twinbase is built with GitHub repository, Pages, and Actions but can be extended to support other providers or self-hosting. We describe the underlying architecture of Twinbase to support the creation of derivative and alternative server implementations. The Digital Twin Web requires permanent, globally accessible, and transferable identifiers to function properly, and to address this issue, we introduce the concept of digital twin identifier registry. Performance measurements showed that the median response times for fetching a digital twin document from Twinbase varied between 0.4 and 1.2 seconds depending on the identifier registry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140779-140798
Number of pages20
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Computer architecture
  • Cyber-physical systems
  • cyberspace
  • Digital twin
  • Digital Twin Web
  • digital twins
  • Internet of Things
  • Internet topology
  • metadata
  • metamodeling
  • Open source software
  • open source software
  • Semantic Web
  • Software development management
  • Standards
  • Tools
  • Web servers
  • web services


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