Turning water into rock: The inverted waves effect

Jukka Häkkinen*, Lauri Gröhn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
179 Downloads (Pure)


Humans perceive shape in two-dimensional shaded images, and turning such an image upside down can result in inversion of the relief of this image. Previous research indicates that this inversion is caused by assumptions related to overhead illumination, global convexity and viewpoint above the surface. In our article, we describe the inverted waves effect, in which turning an image of waves upside down changes its relief and also its perceived material properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Materials
  • Perception of water
  • Shape from shading
  • Surface perception


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