Trainable bioinspired magnetic sensitivity adaptation using ferromagnetic colloidal assemblies

Xianhu Liu, Hongwei Tan, Emil Stråka, Xichen Hu, Min Chen, Sebastiaan van Dijken, Alberto Scacchi, Maria Sammalkorpi, Olli Ikkala*, Bo Peng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Nature has already suggested bioinspired functions. Beyond them, adaptive and trainable functions could be the inspiration for novel responsive soft matter beyond the state-of-the-art classic static bioinspired, stimulus-responsive, and shape-memory materials. Here, we describe magnetic assembly/disassembly of electrically conducting soft ferromagnetic nickel colloidal particles into surface topographical pillars for bistable electrical trainable memories. They allow magnetic sensing with adaptable and rescalable sensitivity ranges, enabled by bistable memories and kinetic concepts inspired by biological sensory adaptations. Based on the soft ferromagnetism of the nanogranular composition and the resulting rough particle surfaces prepared via a solvothermal synthesis, triggerable structural memory is achieved by the magnetic field-driven particle assembly and disassembly, promoted by interparticle jamming. Electrical conversion from current to frequency for electrical spikes facilitates rescalable and trainable frequency-based sensitivity on magnetic fields. This work suggests an avenue for designing trainable and adaptable life-inspired materials, for example, for soft robotics and interactive autonomous devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101923
Pages (from-to)1-19
Number of pages19
JournalCell Reports Physical Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • adaptive
  • assembly
  • bioinspired
  • jamming
  • magnetic particles
  • sensing
  • structural memory


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