Towards the EU emissions targets of 2050 : optimal energy renovation measures of Finnish apartment buildings

Janne Hirvonen*, Juha Jokisalo, Juhani Heljo, Risto Kosonen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Member countries of the European Union have released targets to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 80% by the year 2050. Energy use in buildings is a major source of these emissions, which is why this study focused on the cost-optimal renovation of Finnish apartment buildings. Apartment buildings from four different construction years (pre-1976, 1976–2002, 2003–2009 and post-2010) were modelled, using three different heating systems: district heating, ground-source heat pump and exhaust air heat pump. Multi-objective optimisation was utilised to find the most cost-effective energy renovation measures. Most cost-effective renovation measures were ground-source heat pumps, demand-based ventilation and solar electricity. Additional thermal insulation of walls was usually too expensive. By performing only the cost-effective renovations, the emissions could be reduced by 80%, 82%, 69% and 68%, from the oldest to the newest buildings, respectively. This could be done with the initial investment cost of 296, 235, 115 and 104 €/m2, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)649-672
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
Issue number7
Early online date18 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - 9 Aug 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • apartment building
  • Cost-optimal renovation
  • energy performance
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • multi-objective optimisation


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