Towards Circular Economy for More Sustainable Apparel Consumption: Testing the Value-Belief-Norm Theory in Brazil and in The Netherlands

Giovana Monteiro Gomes, Natalia Moreira, Thijs Bouman, Aldo Roberto Ometto, Ellen van der Werff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
171 Downloads (Pure)


The apparel industry causes environmental problems, particularly due to the shortening life cycle of garments and fast-fashion’s throw-away culture. The circular economy provides solutions to minimise and prevent these problems through innovative circular business models, which require changes in consumer behaviours. With the lens of environmental psychology, we analyse consumers’ willingness to acquire circular apparel considering four approaches on clothing life-cycle extension. We conducted an online questionnaire among Brazilian and Dutch consumers and tested if the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory can explain the willingness of consumers to purchase circular apparel. Our results indicate that, overall, the variables from the VBN theory explain circular behaviour in the apparel industry and that the paths suggested by the model are supported by our analyses. Additionally, we tested and found that when all of the variables from the VBN theory were controlled for, materialistic values did not explain circular behaviours in the apparel industry among Brazilian respondents. However, they had a positive influence on some circular apparel behaviours among Dutch consumers. Overall, materialistic values did not play an important role in predicting willingness to consume circular clothing. Furthermore, the results suggest that the VBN theory predicts willingness to consume circular apparel better in the Netherlands compared to Brazil, suggesting that this behaviour may be perceived as more effortful for the Brazilian population. However, we highlight the need for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number618
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 6 Jan 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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