Many electronic applications, such as portable handheld devices or automotive electronics, experience various loadings during their common operation. Recent investigations have shown, however, that the interactions of the different load components can be highly significant. The commonly employed standardized single load tests neglect these interactions and, therefore, do not represent well enough the use environment loading conditions of many electronic devices. Thus, it has become clear that modifications to the reliability evaluation procedures are necessary. But before loading conditions can be combined in a meaningful manner, the failure mechanisms under single load environments and their possible interactions must be clarified. This paper makes a brief review to the reliability of electronic assemblies under different loading conditions from the perspective of failure modes and mechanisms. The failure modes and mechanisms under pure thermal cycling, power cycling, mechanical shock impact, or vibration conditions are discussed first. Thereafter, the interactions of the loading conditions, when they are combined consecutively or concurrently, are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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