TMS-Induced Modulation of EEG Functional Connectivity Is Affected by the E-Field Orientation

Giulia Pieramico, Roberto Guidotti, Aino E. Nieminen, Antea D’Andrea, Alessio Basti, Victor H. Souza, Jaakko O. Nieminen, Pantelis Lioumis, Risto J. Ilmoniemi, Gian Luca Romani, Vittorio Pizzella*, Laura Marzetti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Coregistration of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) allows non-invasive probing of brain circuits: TMS induces brain activation due to the generation of a properly oriented focused electric field (E-field) using a coil placed on a selected position over the scalp, while EEG captures the effects of the stimulation on brain electrical activity. Moreover, the combination of these techniques allows the investigation of several brain properties, including brain functional connectivity. The choice of E-field parameters, such as intensity, orientation, and position, is crucial for eliciting cortex-specific effects. Here, we evaluated whether and how the spatial pattern, i.e., topography and strength of functional connectivity, is modulated by the stimulus orientation. We systematically altered the E-field orientation when stimulating the left pre-supplementary motor area and showed an increase of functional connectivity in areas associated with the primary motor cortex and an E-field orientation-specific modulation of functional connectivity intensity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number418
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • functional connectivity
  • stimulus orientation


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