Titanium dioxide thin films by atomic layer deposition: A review

Janne Petteri Niemelä*, Giovanni Marin, Maarit Karppinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)
579 Downloads (Pure)


Within its rich phase diagram titanium dioxide is a truly multifunctional material with a property palette that has been shown to span from dielectric to transparent-conducting characteristics, in addition to the well-known catalytic properties. At the same time down-scaling of microelectronic devices has led to an explosive growth in research on atomic layer deposition (ALD) of a wide variety of frontier thin-film materials, among which TiO2 is one of the most popular ones. In this topical review we summarize the advances in research of ALD of titanium dioxide starting from the chemistries of the over 50 different deposition routes developed for TiO2 and the resultant structural characteristics of the films. We then continue with the doped ALD-TiO2 thin films from the perspective of dielectric, transparent-conductor and photocatalytic applications. Moreover, in order to cover the latest trends in the research field, both the variously constructed TiO2 nanostructures enabled by ALD and the Ti-based hybrid inorganic-organic films grown by the emerging ALD/MLD (combined atomic/molecular layer deposition) technique are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number093005
JournalSemiconductor Science and Technology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 23 Aug 2017
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • atomic layer deposition
  • thin film
  • titanium dioxide


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