Time-Dependent Behavior of Waste Lithium-Ion Batteries in Secondary Copper Smelting

Anna Klemettinen*, Lassi Klemettinen, Radosław Michallik, Hugh O'Brien, Ari Jokilaakso

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

44 Downloads (Pure)


As the electrification sector expands rapidly, the demand for metals used in batteries is increasing significantly. New approaches for lithium-ion battery (LIB) recycling have to be investigated and new technologies developed in order to secure the future supply of battery metals (i.e., lithium, cobalt, nickel). In this work, the possibility of integrating LIB recycling with secondary copper smelting was further investigated. The time-dependent behavior of battery metals (Li, Co, Ni, Mn) in simulated secondary copper smelting conditions was investigated for the first time. In the study, copper alloy was used as a medium for collecting valuable metals and the distribution coefficients of these metals between copper alloy and slag were used for evaluating the recycling efficiencies. The determined distribution coefficients follow the order Ni >> Co >> Mn > Li throughout the time range investigated. In our study, the evolution of phases and their chemical composition were investigated in laboratory-scale experiments under reducing conditions of oxygen partial pressure p(O2) = 10−10 atm, at 1300 °C. The results showed that already after 1 h holding time, the major elements were in equilibrium. However, based on the microstructural observations and trace elements distributions, the required full equilibration time for the system was determined to be 16 h.

Original languageEnglish
Article number190
Number of pages13
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • circular economy
  • kinetics
  • pyrometallurgy
  • recycling


Dive into the research topics of 'Time-Dependent Behavior of Waste Lithium-Ion Batteries in Secondary Copper Smelting'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this