We examine the influence of different forms of the free-energy functionals used in the phase-field-crystal (PFC) model, and compare them with the second-order density-functional theory (DFT) of freezing, by using bcc iron as an example case. We show that there are large differences between the PFC and the DFT and it is difficult to obtain reasonable parameters for existing PFC models directly from the DFT. Therefore, we propose a way of expanding the correlation function in terms of gradients that allows us to incorporate the bulk modulus of the liquid as an additional parameter in the theory. We show that this functional reproduces reasonable values for both bulk and surface properties of bcc iron, and therefore it should be useful in modeling bcc materials. As a further demonstration, we also calculate the grain boundary energy as a function of misorientation for a symmetric tilt boundary close to the melting transition.
Jaatinen, A., Achim, C. V., Elder, K. R., & Ala-Nissilä, T. (2009). Thermodynamics of bcc metals in phase-field-crystal models. Physical Review E, 80(3), 1-10. . https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.80.031602