Thermodynamic modelling of the ternary Bi-Ga-Te system for potential application in thermoelectric materials

Bhupendra Kumar, Chandra Shekhar Tiwary, Min-Kyu Paek*, Manas Paliwal*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Thermoelectric materials have drawn widespread attention because they can enable the direct conversion between electric and thermal energy. Over the years, different materials such as skutterudites, clathrates, intermetallic alloys, eutectic alloys, chalcogenides have been explored for Thermoelectric (TE) applications. Amongst the eutectic alloys, the Bi-Ga-Te system exhibits promising potential as a TE material. Accordingly, in this study, we performed the thermodynamic optimization and critical evaluation of binary Bi–Ga, Bi–Te, Ga–Te, and ternary Bi-Ga-Te systems using the CALPHAD method. It is observed that the Ga–Te system shows asymmetric liquid solution properties with strong negative enthalpy of mixing, whereas the Bi–Te liquid exhibits the symmetric regular solution behavior. Moreover, the Bi–Ga liquid solution has a positive enthalpy of mixing. Therefore, Modified Quasichemical Model (MQM) using pair approximation was utilized to describe the diversified thermodynamic properties of liquid solution in sub-binaries by taking into account the Short-Range Ordering (SRO). By merging the binary optimization results with a proper interpolation method, the liquid solution properties and phase diagram information in the Bi-Ga-Te ternary system were also reproduced successfully without any adjustable ternary parameter. Several ternary eutectic compositions were suggested for designing TE alloy with enhanced properties using the developed database.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102326
Number of pages11
JournalCalphad: Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry
Early online date6 Aug 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Bi-Ga-Te system
  • Eutectic alloy
  • Thermodynamic optimization
  • Thermoelectric materials


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