Thermodynamic geometry of ideal quantum gases : a general framework and a geometric picture of BEC-enhanced heat engines

Joshua Eglinton*, Tuomas Pyhäranta, Keiji Saito, Kay Brandner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
150 Downloads (Pure)


Thermodynamic geometry provides a physically transparent framework to describe thermodynamic processes in meso- and micro-scale systems that are driven by slow variations of external control parameters. Focusing on periodic driving for thermal machines, we extend this framework to ideal quantum gases. To this end, we show that the standard approach of equilibrium physics, where a grand-canonical ensemble is used to model a canonical one by fixing the mean particle number through the chemical potential, can be extended to the slow driving regime in a thermodynamically consistent way. As a key application of our theory, we use a Lindblad-type quantum master equation to work out a dynamical model of a quantum many-body engine using a harmonically trapped Bose-gas. Our results provide a geometric picture of the Bose-Einstein condensate-induced power enhancement that was previously predicted for this type of engine on the basis of an endoreversible model (Myers et al 2022 New J. Phys. 24 025001). Using an earlier derived universal trade-off relation between power and efficiency as a benchmark, we further show that the Bose-gas engine can deliver significantly more power at given efficiency than an equally large collection of single-body engines. Our work paves the way for a more general thermodynamic framework that makes it possible to systematically assess the impact of quantum many-body effects on the performance of thermal machines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number043014
Pages (from-to)1-21
Number of pages21
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Bose-Einstein condensate
  • quantum heat engines
  • quantum thermodynamics
  • thermodynamic geometry


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