Theorizing MNE-NGO conflicts in state-capitalist contexts: Insights from the Greenpeace, Gazprom and the Russian state dispute in the Arctic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Research units

  • National Research University Higher School of Economics


This paper theorizes development of MNE-NGO-state conflicts in state-capitalist contexts. We draw on longitudinal data from the Arctic oil drilling dispute between environmental NGOs headed by Greenpeace, and Gazprom, the Russian energy giant. We propose a theory that introduces two concepts: shadow-boxing and homeostasis. In shadow-boxing, escalation of visible action by NGOs is met with a seemingly separate but concerted response by the MNE and state bodies. In homeostasis, the contested corporate activity continues undisturbed after the escalated conflict. Beyond state capitalism, these concepts have explanatory power in settings where the corporations and the state are intertwined in various ways.


Original languageEnglish
Article number101068
JournalJournal of World Business
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • MNE-NGO conflict, State capitalism, Corporate social (ir)responsibility, The Arctic, Institutional pressures

ID: 39349421