Aims: Toxigenic strains of Paenibacillus polymyxa were isolated from buildings connected with the symptoms of ill health. Our aim was to identify the toxic compounds of Paenibacillus polymyxa and to describe their toxic actions. Methods and Results: The toxins of Paenibacillus polymyxa were purified and analysed by HPLC and mass spectrometry. Toxic fusaricidins A and B, and LI-F05a with mass ions at m/z 883·7, 897·6 and 897·6, respectively, were found. The cytotoxicity of purified fusaricidins A and B was measured using boar sperm, porcine tubular kidney epithelial cells and murine fibroblasts. The ion channel forming properties of fusaricidins were studied using the black lipid membrane (BLM) technique. Fusaricidins A and B depolarized the mitochondria of boar sperm, porcine tubular kidney epithelial cells and murine fibroblasts at concentrations of 0·5–1 μg ml−1 and caused nuclear fragmentation and induced apoptosis at concentrations of 2·5–5 μg ml−1. Furthermore, fusaricidins A and B induced K+ permeating single channels. Conclusions: It was concluded that fusaricidins were toxic to mitochondria and induced apoptosis in mammalian cells. It was proposed that the observed toxicity of fusaricidins is due their ion channel forming properties. Significance and Impact of the Study: This paper revealed, for the first time, the mode of action of Paenibacillus polymyxa fusaricidins toxins towards mammalian cells. Fusaricidins, due to their potassium ionophoricity and mitochondria depolarizing impacts, may have contributed to the health damage observed at sites where the producer strains were isolated at high density.
- mode of action