The reliability of microalloyed Sn-Ag-Cu solder interconnections under cyclic thermal and mechanical shock loading

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In this study, the performance of three microalloyed Sn-Ag-Cu solder interconnection compositions (Sn-3.1Ag-0.52Cu, Sn-3.0Ag-0.52Cu-0.24Bi, and Sn-1.1Ag-0.52Cu-0.1Ni) was compared under mechanical shock loading (JESD22-B111 standard) and cyclic thermal loading (40 ± 125°C, 42 min cycle) conditions. In the drop tests, the component boards with the low-silver nickel-containing composition (Sn-Ag-Cu-Ni) showed the highest average number of drops-to-failure, while those with the bismuth-containing alloy (Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi) showed the lowest. Results of the thermal cycling tests showed that boards with Sn-Ag-Cu-Bi interconnections performed the best, while those with Sn-Ag-Cu-Ni performed the worst. Sn-Ag-Cu was placed in the middle in both tests. In this paper, we demonstrate that solder strength is an essential reliability factor and that higher strength can be beneficial for thermal cycling reliability but detrimental to drop reliability. We discuss these findings from the perspective of the microstructures and mechanical properties of the three solder interconnection compositions and, based on a comprehensive literature review, investigate how the differences in the solder compositions influence the mechanical properties of the interconnections and discuss how the differences are reflected in the failure mechanisms under both loading conditions.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4090-4102
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • drop impact, minor alloying elements, Reliability, Sn-Ag-Cu solder, thermal cycling

ID: 9310765