The internationalization of early stage social enterprises

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientific


Social enterprises (SEs) have become important new actors in solving grand challenges in a VUCA world. Nevertheless, International Business (IB) research has paid little attention to them. To address this gap, we draw upon a comparative case study of two SEs: one addressing poverty and the other tackling ocean plastics pollution. Our analysis uncovers two issue-specific internationalization paths: a multi-local path and a born-glocal path. On the basis of the findings, we re-conceptualize internationalization in the context of SEs as an ongoing, issue-specific process of social impact scaling through bricolage, global optimization, and local integration. We conclude by offering suggestions for further accounting for SEs in the IB research agenda.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Business in a VUCA World: The Changing Role of States and Firm
EditorsRob van Tulder, Verbeke Alain, Barbara Jankowska
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeB2 Part of a book or another research book

Publication series

NameProgress in International Business Research


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