The Influence of Aluminum on Indium and Tin Behaviour during Secondary Copper Smelting

Katri Avarmaa, Pekka Taskinen

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Aluminum and copper are large volume metals in electronic appliances, while tin and indium exist as common minor elements. All of these non-ferrous metals are aimed to be separated and recycled from the end-of-life electronics into non-ferrous scrap fraction(s), and further through pyrometallurgical and/or hydrometallurgical processes to pure metals. Depending on the mechanical pre-treatment processes, aluminum and copper liberation from each other varies. This study focuses on the influence of alumina on indium and tin distributions between copper alloy and iron silicate slags with 0, 9 and ~16 wt% of Al2O3. The experiments were executed with an equilibration-quenching-EPMA technique in an oxygen pressure range of 10−10–10−5 atm at 1300 ℃. The metal-slag distribution coefficient of indium remains constant as a function of alumina in slag, while that of tin increases. Therefore, aluminum in feed or alumina addition to the slag improves the recovery of tin into copper. Nevertheless, oxygen pressure has clearly more significant influence on the behavior of both the metals in the smelting conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationExtraction 2018
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the First Global Conference on Extractive Metallurgy
EditorsDavis Boyd, Michael Moats, Shijie Wang
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-319-95022-8
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventGlobal Conference on Extractive Metallurgy - Ottawa, Canada
Duration: 26 Aug 201829 Aug 2018
Conference number: 1

Publication series

NameThe Minerals, Metals & Materials Series


ConferenceGlobal Conference on Extractive Metallurgy
Internet address


  • Recovering
  • Technical metals
  • Sustainability


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