The Impact of Optimal Demand Response Control and Thermal Energy Storage on a District Heating System

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Research units

  • Fourdeg Ltd
  • Nanjing Tech University


Demand response has been studied in district heating connected buildings since the rollout of smart, communicating devices has made it cost-effective to control buildings’ energy consumption externally. This research investigates optimal demand response control strategies from the district heating operator perspective. Based on earlier simulations on the building level, different case algorithms were simulated on a typical district heating system. The results show that even in the best case, heat production costs can be decreased by only 0.7%. However, by implementing hot water thermal storage in the system, demand response can become more profitable, resulting in 1.4% cost savings. It is concluded that the hot water storage tank can balance district heating peak loads for longer periods of time, which enhances the ability to use demand response strategies on a larger share of the building stock.


Original languageEnglish
Article number1678
Number of pages19
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • demand response, district heating, hot water storagfe, rule-based control

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