The effects of seasons and weather on sleep patterns measured through longitudinal multimodal sensing

Stephen M. Mattingly*, Ted Grover, Gonzalo J. Martinez, Talayeh Aledavood, Pablo Robles-Granda, Kari Nies, Aaron Striegel, Gloria Mark

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)
78 Downloads (Pure)


Previous studies of seasonal effects on sleep have yielded unclear results, likely due to methodological differences and limitations in data size and/or quality. We measured the sleep habits of 216 individuals across the U.S. over four seasons for slightly over a year using objective, continuous, and unobtrusive measures of sleep and local weather. In addition, we controlled for demographics and trait-like constructs previously identified to correlate with sleep behavior. We investigated seasonal and weather effects of sleep duration, bedtime, and wake time. We found several small but statistically significant effects of seasonal and weather effects on sleep patterns. We observe the strongest seasonal effects for wake time and sleep duration, especially during the spring season: wake times are earlier, and sleep duration decreases (compared to the reference season winter). Sleep duration also modestly decreases when day lengths get longer (between the winter and summer solstice). Bedtimes and wake times tend to be slightly later as outdoor temperature increases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number76
Number of pages15
Journalnpj Digital Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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