The effect of fuel on high velocity evaporating fuel sprays: Large-Eddy simulation of Spray A with various fuels

Ossi Tapani Kaario*, Ville Vuorinen, Heikki Kahila, Hong G. Im, Martti Larmi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
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Lagrangian particle tracking and Large-Eddy simulation were used to assess the effect of different fuels on spray characteristics. In such a two-way coupled modeling scenario, spray momentum accelerates the gaseous phase into an intense, multiphase jet near the nozzle. To assess fuel property effects on liquid spray formation, the non-reacting Engine Combustion Network Spray A baseline condition was chosen as the reference case. The validated Spray A case was modified by replacing n-dodecane with diesel, methanol, dimethyl ether, or propane assuming 150 MPa injection pressure. The model features and performance for various fuels in the under-resolved near-nozzle region are discussed. The main findings of the paper are as follows. (1) We show that, in addition to the well-known liquid penetration (Formula presented.), and vapor penetration (Formula presented.), for all the investigated fuels, the modeled multiphase jets exhibit also a third length scale (Formula presented.), with discussed correspondence to a potential core part common to single phase jets. (2) As a characteristic feature of the present model, (Formula presented.) is noted to correlate linearly with (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) for all the fuels. (3) A separate sensitivity test on density variation indicated that the liquid density had a relatively minor role on (Formula presented.). (4) Significant dependency between fuel oxygen content and the equivalence ratio (Formula presented.) distribution was observed. (5) Repeated simulations indicated injection-to-injection variations below 2% for (Formula presented.) and 4% for (Formula presented.). In the absence of experimental and fully resolved numerical near-nozzle velocity data, the exact details of (Formula presented.) remain as an open question. In contrast, fuel property effects on spray development have been consistently explained herein.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Engine Research
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2019
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • Engine Combustion Network
  • fuel comparison
  • Lagrangian particle tracking
  • Large-Eddy simulation
  • liquid length
  • Spray A

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  • Projects

    Tri-Reactivity Ignition: Simulation and Experiments

    Vuorinen, V., Gadalla, M., Kannan, J. & Cheng, Q.


    Project: Academy of Finland: Other research funding

    Clean and Efficient Gas Combustion: Numerical Simulation of Simultaneous Combustion of Two Fuels

    Kaario, O., Tekgul, B., Keskinen, K., Ahmad, Z., Ranta, O., Ainsalo, A. & Gadalla, M.


    Project: Academy of Finland: Other research funding



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    School of Science

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