The comparison of design airflow rates with dynamic and steady-state displacement models in varied dynamic conditions

Natalia Lastovets*, Risto Kosonen, Juha Jokisalo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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A temperature-based method is usually applied in displacement ventilation (DV) design when overheating is the primary indoor climate concern. Different steady-state models have been developed and implemented to calculate airflow rate in rooms with DV. However, in practical applications, the performance of DV depends on potentially dynamic parameters, such as strength, type and location of heat gains and changing heat gain schedule. In addition, thermal mass affects dynamically changing room air temperature. The selected steady-state and dynamic models were validated with the experimental results of a lecture room and an orchestra rehearsal room. Among the presented models, dynamic DV model demonstrated a capability to take into account the combination of dynamic parameters in typical applications of DV. The design airflow rate is calculated for the case studies of dynamic DV design in the modelled lecture room in both dynamic and steady-state conditions. In dynamic conditions of heavy construction in 2–4 hours occupancy periods, the actual airflow rate required could be 50% lower than the airflow rate calculated with the steady-state models. The difference between steady-state and dynamic multi-nodal model is most significant with heavyweight construction and short occupancy period (17%–28%). In cases with light construction, the dynamic DV model provides roughly the same airflow rates for four-hour occupancy period than the Mund’s model calculates. The dynamic model can significantly decrease the design airflow rate of DV, which can result in a reduction of investment costs and electrical consumption of fans.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • airflow rate
  • displacement ventilation design
  • dynamic model
  • simplified building energy models
  • temperature gradient

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