The air temperature change effect on water quality in the Kvarken Archipelago area

N. Girgibo*, X. Lü, E. Hiltunen, P. Peura, Z. Dai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)


The Kvarken Archipelago is Finland's World Heritage site designated by UNESCO. How climate change has affected the Kvaken Archipelago remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate this issue by analyzing air temperature and water quality in this area. Here we use long-term historical data sets of 61 years from several monitoring stations. Water quality parameters included chlorophyll-a; total phosphorus; total nitrogen; coliform bacteria thermos tolerant; temperature; nitrate as nitrogen; nitrite-nitrate as nitrogen, and Secchi depth and correlations analysis was conducted to identify the most relevant parameters. Based on the correlation analysis of weather data and water quality parameters, air temperature showed a significant correlation with water temperature (Pearson's correlations = 0.89691, P < 0.0001). The air temperature increased in April (R2 (goodness-of-fit) = 0.2109 & P = 0.0009) and July (R2 = 0.1207 & P = 0.0155) which has indirectly increased the chlorophyll-a level (e.g. in June increasing slope = 0.39101, R2 = 0.4685, P < 0.0001) an indicator of phytoplankton growth and abundance in the water systems. The study concludes that there might be indirect effects of the likely increase in air temperature on water quality in the Kvarken Archipelago, in particular causing water temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration to increase at least in some months.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162599
Number of pages12
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Chlorophyll-a
  • Climate
  • Climate change effects
  • Global warming
  • Water and air temperature
  • Water quality


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