TeraHertz Exploration and Zooming-in for Astrophysics (THEZA): ESA Voyage 2050 White Paper

Research output: Working paperScientific


  • Leonid I. Gurvits
  • Zsolt Paragi
  • Viviana Casasola
  • John Conway
  • Jordy Davelaar
  • Heino Falcke
  • Rob Fender
  • Christian M. Fromm
  • Cristina Garcia Miro
  • Michael A. Garrett
  • Marcello Giroletti
  • Ciriaco Goddi
  • Jose-Luis Gaomez
  • Jeffrey van der Gucht
  • Jose Carlos Guirado
  • Zoltaan Haiman
  • Frank Helmich
  • Elizabeth Humphreys
  • Violette Impellizzeri
  • Michael Kramer
  • Michael Lindqvist
  • Hendrik Linz
  • Elisabetta Liuzzo
  • Andrei P. Lobanov
  • Yosuke Mizuno
  • Luciano Rezzolla
  • Freek Roelofs
  • Eduardo Ros
  • Kazi L. J. Rygl
  • Karl Schuster
  • Tiziana Venturi
  • Martina Wiedner
  • J. Anton Zensus

Research units


The astrophysical agenda of the 21st century requires a very sharp view of celestial objects. High angular resolution studies are essential for fundamental studies of a broad variety of astrophysical phenomena ranging from relativistic physics of black holes, their gravitational and electromagnetic imprints, violent transient processes, including those producing detectable gravitational waves, birth and evolution of planetary systems. Over the past decades, radio astronomy made huge leap in achieving ground-breaking angular resolution measured in tens of microarcseconds (one tenth of nanoradian and better). Recently a global Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration obtained first direct images of the shadow of a super-massive black hole in the nucleus of the active galaxy M87. These observations were conducted at 230 GHz. The two first generation Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) missions, VSOP/HALCA led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and RadioAstron led by the Russia Roscosmos State Corporation and Russia Academy of Sciences, achieved the highest angular resolution at frequencies from 0.3 to 22 GHz in observations conducted in the period 1997 - 2019. The next step in advancing high angular resolution radio astronomy is in combining high frequency (millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths) and interferometric baselines exceeding the Earth diameter. The present THEZA White Paper describes a combination which would unify technology developments in giga-/tera-hertz instrumentation and space-borne radio astronomy. The current preprint version of the THEZA White Paper is slightly re-formatted and edited comparing to the official submitted version.


Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

    Research areas

  • Astrophysics - Instrumentation and Methods for Astrophysics, Astrophysics - Astrophysics of Galaxies, Astrophysics - High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

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