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Single-layer ceramic fuel cells consisting of Li0.15Ni0.45Zn0.4O2, Gd0.2Ce0.8O2 and a eutectic mixture of Li2CO3, Na2CO3 and K2CO3, were fabricated through extrusion-based 3D printing. The sintering temperature of the printed cells was varied from 700◦C to 1000◦C to identify the optimal thermal treatment to maximize the cell performance. It was found that the 3D printed single-layer cell sintered at 900◦C produced the highest power density (230 mW/cm2 ) at 550◦C, which is quite close to the performance (240 mW/cm2) of the single-layer cell fabricated through a conventional pressing method. The best printed cell still had high ohmic (0.46 Ω·cm2 ) and polarization losses (0.32 Ω·cm2 ) based on EIS measurements conducted in an open-circuit condition. The XRD spectra showed the characteristic peaks of the crystalline structures in the composite material. HR-TEM, SEM and EDS measurements revealed the morphological information of the composite materials and the distribution of the elements, respectively. The BET surface area of the single-layer cells was found to decrease from 2.93 m2/g to 0.18 m2/g as the sintering temperature increased from 700◦C to 1000◦C. The printed cell sintered at 900◦C had a BET surface area of 0.34 m2/g. The fabrication of single-layer ceramic cells through up-scalable 3D technology could facilitate the scaling up and commercialization of this promising fuel cell technology.
- 3D printing
- Fuel cell
- Mixed ionic and electronic conductivity
- Reaction kinetics