Systematic analysis on the effect of sintering temperature for optimized performance of li0.15ni0.45zn0.4o2-gd0.2ce0.8o2-li2co3-na2co3-k2co3 based 3d printed single-layer ceramic fuel cell

Muhammad Imran Asghar*, Pyry Mäkinen, Sini Virtanen, Anna Maitre, Maryam Borghei, Peter D. Lund

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Single-layer ceramic fuel cells consisting of Li0.15Ni0.45Zn0.4O2, Gd0.2Ce0.8O2 and a eutectic mixture of Li2CO3, Na2CO3 and K2CO3, were fabricated through extrusion-based 3D printing. The sintering temperature of the printed cells was varied from 700C to 1000C to identify the optimal thermal treatment to maximize the cell performance. It was found that the 3D printed single-layer cell sintered at 900C produced the highest power density (230 mW/cm2 ) at 550C, which is quite close to the performance (240 mW/cm2) of the single-layer cell fabricated through a conventional pressing method. The best printed cell still had high ohmic (0.46 Ω·cm2 ) and polarization losses (0.32 Ω·cm2 ) based on EIS measurements conducted in an open-circuit condition. The XRD spectra showed the characteristic peaks of the crystalline structures in the composite material. HR-TEM, SEM and EDS measurements revealed the morphological information of the composite materials and the distribution of the elements, respectively. The BET surface area of the single-layer cells was found to decrease from 2.93 m2/g to 0.18 m2/g as the sintering temperature increased from 700C to 1000C. The printed cell sintered at 900C had a BET surface area of 0.34 m2/g. The fabrication of single-layer ceramic cells through up-scalable 3D technology could facilitate the scaling up and commercialization of this promising fuel cell technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2180
Number of pages14
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • 3D printing
  • Ceramic
  • Fuel cell
  • Mixed ionic and electronic conductivity
  • Nanocomposite
  • Reaction kinetics
  • Single-layer
  • Sintering


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