Sustainable usage through emotional engagement: a user experience analysis of an adaptive driving school application

Amir Dirin, Teemu H. Laine*, Marko Nieminen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


This paper explores the factors affecting sustainable usage of digital services, such as mobile learning (m-learning) applications. We define a conceptual model of digital service sustainability and its measurement indicators and criteria. We assess the conceptual model by applying it to an adaptive m-learning application, which provides theory and assessment for driving school students based on their competence and learning progress. Additionally, the application provides mandatory self-evaluation reports to instructors after each practical driving session. The application assessment focused on how students’ performed the predefined tasks at a usability laboratory. The assessment was based on educational components in conjunction with user experience factors of delightfulness, adjustability, satisfaction, and reliability. The key qualitative performance aspects proved to be user-centered (e.g. individual differences in cognitive and learning capabilities), UI-focused (e.g. interaction and adaptability to screen resolution), and content-related (e.g. contextual delivery, emotional appeal, adaptability). These elements resulted in overall delightful and effortless experience. The evaluation results indicate that the user experience factors impact sustainable usage because students are emotionally attached to the application. Therefore, we suggest that emotional attachment assessment results may serve as an indicator for sustainability of m-learning applications. These results help mobile application designers to design sustainable applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)303–313
Number of pages11
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Driver’s license application
  • Emotional engagement
  • Sustainable usage
  • User experience factors


Dive into the research topics of 'Sustainable usage through emotional engagement: a user experience analysis of an adaptive driving school application'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this