Survey of bidirectional transmittance distribution function measurement facilities by multilateral scale comparisons

Jinglin Fu*, Alejandro Ferrero, Tatjana Quast, Michael Esslinger, Pablo Santafé-Gabarda, Néstor Tejedor, Joaquín Campos, Lou Gevaux, Gaël Obein, Robin Aschan, Farshid Manoocheri, Erkki Ikonen, Geiland Porrovecchio, Marek Šmíd, Ellie Molloy, Annette Koo, Søren A. Jensen, Rafael Oser, Jan Audenaert, Youri MeuretStefan Källberg, Iryna Gozhyk, Tobias Kraus, Alfred Schirmacher

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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In recent years, a growing demand for the capability of performing accurate measurements of the bidirectional transmittance distribution function (BTDF) has been observed in industry, research and development, and aerospace applications. However, there exists no calibration and measurement capabilities-entry for BTDF in the database of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures and to date no BTDF comparison has been conducted between different national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs). As a first step to a possible future key comparison and to test the existing capabilities of determining this measurand, two interlaboratory comparisons were performed. In comparison one, five samples of three different types of optical transmissive diffusers were measured by five NMIs and one DI. By specific sample choice, the focus for this study lay more on orientation-dependent scatter properties. In comparison two, where one NMI, one DI, one university, and three industrial partners investigated their measurement capabilities, the dependence on the orientation was not assessed, but two additional samples of the same material and different thickness were measured. Results of the two comparisons are presented, giving a good overview of existing experimental solutions, and showing specific sample-related problems to be solved for improved future BTDF measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number035006
Number of pages20
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • applied radiometry
  • BTDF
  • diffuse transmission
  • goniospectrophotometry
  • intercomparison
  • transmissive diffuser


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