Surface Integral Equation Method for Soft-and-Hard/DB Boundary Condition

Beibei Kong*, Pasi Yla-Oijala, Ari Sihvola

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
23 Downloads (Pure)


A surface integral equation (SIE) method is developed to analyze electromagnetic scattering by 3-D objects with soft-and-hard/DB (SHDB) boundary conditions. The SHDB boundary condition is a generalization of the soft-and-hard (SH) and DB boundary conditions that associate the normal and tangential field components on the boundary. In the developed method, the SHDB boundary condition is expressed in vector form that allows combining it with the tangential field integral equations. The obtained equations can be discretized with the standard method of moments (MoM) using the Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) functions. Different combinations of the integral equations and boundary conditions are derived, and their numerical performance is studied and compared. It is demonstrated with numerical experiments that a much more stable system is obtained by considering the boundary conditions as extra equations, rather than integrating them into the SIEs. The solutions of the proposed nonsquare integral equation are verified with the physical optics approximations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9234056
Pages (from-to)2790-2797
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Electromagnetic scattering
  • soft-and-hard/DB (SHDB) boundary
  • surface integral equation (SIE)


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