Surface Integral Equation Based Characteristic Mode Formulation for Penetrable Bodies

Pasi Yla-Oijala, Henrik Wallen, Dimitrios C. Tzarouchis, Ari Sihvola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Novel surface integral equation (SIE) based theory of characteristic mode (TCM) formulations are proposed for homogeneous penetrable bodies. Analytical expressions for the characteristic eigenvalues are presented and good agreement between the numerical and analytical results is observed for both lossless and lossy, as well as for dielectric and magnetodielectric objects. The new formulations, without any postprocessing methods, avoid spurious modes and resonances appearing in existing SIE-based TCM formulations. For lossy objects the obtained eigenvalues are complex. The real part of an eigenvalue is related to the ratio of the reactive and radiated power, as in the original TCM formulation for PEC structures, and the imaginary part gives the ratio between the dissipated and radiated power.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3532-3539
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Characteristic mode
  • Dielectric losses
  • dielectric resonator
  • eigenvalue
  • Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions
  • Integral equations
  • lossy object
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Mathematical model
  • penetrable object
  • surface integral equation


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