Superhydrophobic blood-repellent surfaces

Ville Jokinen, Esko Kankuri, Sasha Hoshian, Sami Franssila, Robin Ras

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)
210 Downloads (Pure)


Superhydrophobic surfaces repel water and, in some cases, other liquids as well. The repellency is caused by topographical features at the nano-/microscale and low surface energy. Blood is a challenging liquid to repel due to its high propensity for activation of intrinsic hemostatic mechanisms, induction of coagulation, and platelet activation upon contact with foreign surfaces. Imbalanced activation of coagulation drives thrombogenesis or formation of blood clots that can occlude the blood flow either on-site or further downstream as emboli, exposing tissues to ischemia and infarction. Blood-repellent superhydrophobic surfaces aim toward reducing the thrombogenicity of surfaces of blood-contacting devices and implants. Several mechanisms that lead to blood repellency are proposed, focusing mainly on platelet antiadhesion. Structured surfaces can: (i) reduce the effective area exposed to platelets, (ii) reduce the adhesion area available to individual platelets, (iii) cause hydrodynamic effects that reduce platelet adhesion, and (iv) reduce or alter protein adsorption in a way that is not conducive to thrombus formation. These mechanisms benefit from the superhydrophobic Cassie state, in which a thin layer of air is trapped between the solid surface and the liquid. The connections between water- and blood repellency are discussed and several recent examples of blood-repellent superhydrophobic surfaces are highlighted.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1705104
Number of pages10
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number24
Early online date21 Feb 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • antithrombogenic
  • blood-compatible
  • blood-repellent
  • nanostructures
  • superhydrophobic

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Superhydrophobic blood-repellent surfaces'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Projects



    Anna Rissanen (Manager)

    Aalto University

    Facility/equipment: Facility

  • Cite this