Superbase-based protic ionic liquids for cellulose filament spinning

Sherif Elsayed, Michael Hummel, Daisuke Sawada, Chamseddine Guizani, Marja Rissanen, Herbert Sixta*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
377 Downloads (Pure)


Abstract: Lyocell fibers have received increased attention during the recent years. This is due to their high potential to satisfy the rising market demand for cellulose-based textiles in a sustainable way. Typically, this technology adopts a dry-jet wet spinning process, which offers regenerated cellulose fibers of excellent mechanical properties. Compared to the widely exploited viscose process, the lyocell technology fosters an eco-friendly process employing green direct solvents that can be fully recovered with low environmental impact. N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is a widely known direct solvent that has proven its success in commercializing the lyocell process. Its regenerated cellulose fibers exhibit higher tenacities and chain orientation compared to viscose fibers. Recently, protic superbase-based ionic liquids (ILs) have also been found to be suitable solvents for lyocell-type fiber spinning. Similar to NMMO, fibers of high mechanical properties can be spun from the cellulose-IL solutions at lower spinning temperatures. In this article, we study the different aspects of producing regenerated cellulose fibers using NMMO and relevant superbase-based ILs. The selected ILs are 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene-1-ium acetate ([DBNH]OAc), 7-methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0] dec-5-enium acetate ([mTBDH]OAc) and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-enium acetate ([DBUH]OAc). All ILs were used to dissolve a 13 wt% (PHK) cellulose pulp. The study covers the fiber spinning process, including the rheological characterization of the various cellulose solutions. Moreover, we discuss the properties of the produced fibers such as mechanical performance, macromolecular properties and morphology. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)533-547
Number of pages15
Issue number1
Early online date20 Oct 2020
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cellulose dissolution
  • Ioncell
  • Ionic liquids
  • Lyocell
  • MMCFs
  • Regenerated fibers


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