Sub-picosecond thermalization dynamics in condensation of strongly coupled lattice plasmons

Aaro I. Väkeväinen, Antti J. Moilanen, Marek Nečada, Tommi K. Hakala, Konstantinos S. Daskalakis, Päivi Törmä*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)


Bosonic condensates offer exciting prospects for studies of non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. Understanding the dynamics is particularly challenging in the sub-picosecond timescales typical for room temperature luminous driven-dissipative condensates. Here we combine a lattice of plasmonic nanoparticles with dye molecule solution at the strong coupling regime, and pump the molecules optically. The emitted light reveals three distinct regimes: one-dimensional lasing, incomplete stimulated thermalization, and two-dimensional multimode condensation. The condensate is achieved by matching the thermalization rate with the lattice size and occurs only for pump pulse durations below a critical value. Our results give access to control and monitoring of thermalization processes and condensate formation at sub-picosecond timescale. Understanding the sub-picosecond dynamics of driven-dissipative condensates of interacting bosons is challenging. Here the authors combine a lattice of plasmonic nanoparticles with a dye molecule solution in strong coupling and reveal distinct lasing, stimulated thermalization, and condensation regimes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3139
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalNature Communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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