Studying Direct Lightning Stroke Impact on Human Safety near HVTL Towers Considering Two Layer Soils and Ionization Influence

Osama E. Gouda, Adel Z. El Dein, Sara Yassin Omar, Mohamed M.F. Darwish, Matti Lehtonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


A lightning strike is considered one of the most risky natural phenomena that can lead to human harmful and the surrounding soil layers. To tackle this issue, this article investigates the influence of direct lightning characteristics in terms of human body safety. Specifically, such investigation is carried out on the effect of resistivities of two-layer soils on human safety when lightning stroke hits the towers of the high voltage transmission lines (HVTLs). The merit of the proposed study is that the soil ionization phenomenon is taken into consideration. Further, the study focuses on the current passing through the human heart, when step and touch (contact) voltages are generated by grounding potential rise, caused by direct lightning strikes transmission tower and the produced potential rise that a person could be exposed. Also, studying the effects of peak current and time of lightning strokes are investigated. Additionally, the paper presents the effect of different reflection factors on human safety. For validation purposes, the ATP program is used in the simulation of the grounding system as well as the human body model. Numerous simulations were accomplished in order to examine the behavior of the current passing through with the human heart. Based on the simulation results, it was concluded that the soil characteristics have superior influences on the contact and step potentials and, accordingly, the survival threshold.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5019-5030
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • ATP program
  • Electric potential
  • Electrodes
  • Grounding
  • High voltage transmission lines
  • High-voltage techniques
  • Human body safety
  • Human factors
  • Human heart
  • Ionization
  • Lightning
  • Lightning strokes
  • non-homogenous soil
  • Poles and towers
  • Power transmission lines
  • Safety
  • Soil ionization
  • Soil moisture


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