Structural Analysis of Lignin-Based Furan Resin

Xuhai Zhu*, Bardo Bruijnaers, Tainise V. Lourençon, Mikhail Balakshin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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The global “carbon emission peak” and “carbon neutrality” strategic goals promote us to replace current petroleum-based resin products with biomass-based resins. The use of technical lignins and hemicellulose-derived furfuryl alcohol in the production of biomass-based resins are among the most promising ways. Deep understanding of the resulting resin structure is a prerequisite for the optimization of biomass-based resins. Herein, a semiquantitative 2D HSQC NMR technique supplemented by the quantitative 31P NMR and methoxyl group wet chemistry analysis were employed for the structural elucidation of softwood kraft lignin-based furfuryl alcohol resin (LFA). The LFA was fractionated into water-insoluble (LFA-I) and soluble (LFA-S) parts. The analysis of methoxyl groups showed that the amount of lignin was 85 wt% and 44 wt% in LFA-I and LFA-S fractions, respectively. The HSQC spectra revealed the high diversity of linkages formed between lignin and poly FA (pFA). The HSQC and 31P results indicated the formation of new condensed structures, particularly at the 5-position of the aromatic ring. Esterification reactions between carboxyl groups of lignin and hydroxyl groups of pFA could also occur. Furthermore, it was suggested that lignin phenolic hydroxyl oxygen could attack an opened furan ring to form several aryl ethers structures. Therefore, the LFA resin was produced through crosslinking between lignin fragments and pFA chains.

Original languageEnglish
Article number350
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Bio-based resin
  • Furfuryl alcohol
  • Lignin
  • NMR
  • Structural analysis


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