Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis using the data envelopment model

Risto Lahdelma*, Pekka Salminen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-2) are methods for evaluating alternatives based on multiple criteria. While DEA is mainly an ex-post tool used for classifying alternatives into efficient and inefficient ones, SMAA-2 is an ex-ante tool for supporting multiple criteria decision-making. Both methods use a kind of value function where the importance of criteria is modeled using weights. Unlike many other methods, neither DEA nor SMAA-2 requires decision-makers' weights as input. Instead, these so-called non-parametric methods explore the weight space in order to identify weights favorable for each alternative. This paper introduces the SMAA-D method, which is a combination of DEA and SMAA-2. SMAA-D can be characterized as an extension of DEA to handle uncertain or imprecise data to provide stochastic efficiency measures. Alternatively, the combined method can be seen as a variant of SMAA-2 with a DEA-type value function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-252
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Acceptability analysis
  • Data envelopment analysis
  • Multicriteria analysis
  • Stochastic efficiency


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