Stereoscopic Imaging Technology: Perception, Emotion, and Acceptance

Jussi H. Hakala

Research output: ThesisDoctoral ThesisCollection of Articles


Stereoscopic technologies that mediate separate images for the left and right eyes of viewers increase the illusion of non-mediation. In studies, observers have verbalized the difference of stereoscopic images to monoscopic images as increased naturalness, realness, and life-likeness. Regardless of the benefits, to date the vast majority of cameras and displays remains non-stereoscopic. Although the use of stereoscopic technologies is currently marginal, the ongoing advent of head-mounted displays is a strong driving force for the proliferation of stereoscopy. This interdisciplinary dissertation studies stereoscopic technologies from the perspectives of visual perception, emotion mediation, and technology acceptance. The aim of the dissertation is to increase the understanding of perception-related issues that affect the acceptance of stereoscopic technologies and the emotional implications of utilizing stereoscopic technology. The findings of the dissertation originate from five studies using human participants. Two of the studies focused on the perception of stereoscopic artifacts. In the first study, we discovered a depth artifact in images displayed on spatially interlacing displays, and in the second study, we examined color asymmetries in stereoscopic photographs. The two following studies focused on the perception of stereoscopic portrait photographs. The findings indicated that stereoscopy has the potential to amplify affective valence and that perception of mutual gaze differs significantly between stereoscopic and monoscopic images. A principal conclusion from the findings is that emotions elicited by stereoscopic content are sensitive to the stereoscopic technology parameters. Finally, the fifth study takes the technology from a laboratory setting into the field. We examined the factors that affect the technology acceptance of stereoscopic imaging in a field study. The results showed that stereoscopic photography is challenging for novice users. Particularly, learning the limits imposed by the fixed distance between the camera lenses proved demanding. Together, the findings suggest that artifact-free stereoscopic content has the potential to provide users with a strong illusion of non-mediation and powerful emotional experiences that further the acceptance of stereoscopy. Apart from the study on spatially interlacing displays, the findings of the studies are broadly generalizable across different stereoscopic technologies in the still image and video domains. The findings inform the design of stereoscopic devices and stereoscopic media production in the photography, cinematography, videography, animation, and video game industries. Furthermore, the dissertation increases the theoretical understanding of the effects of stereoscopy on the
Translated title of the contributionStereoskooppinen kuvatekniikka: havainto, emootiot ja hyväksyntä
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
  • Takala, Tapio, Supervising Professor
  • Oittinen, Pirkko, Supervising Professor
  • Häkkinen, Jukka, Thesis Advisor
Print ISBNs978-952-60-7064-3
Electronic ISBNs978-952-60-7063-6
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeG5 Doctoral dissertation (article)


  • stereoscopy
  • binocular perception
  • facial expressions
  • gaze
  • eye contact


Dive into the research topics of 'Stereoscopic Imaging Technology: Perception, Emotion, and Acceptance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this