Steady-state visual evoked potential-based computer gaming on a consumer-grade EEG device

Nikolay Chumerin, Nikolay V. Manyakov, Marijn Van Vliet, Arne Robben, Adrien Combaz, Marc M. Van Hulle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, we introduce a game in which the player navigates an avatar through a maze by using a brain-computer interface (BCI) that analyzes the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) responses recorded with electroencephalography (EEG) on the player's scalp. The four-command control game, called The Maze, was specifically designed around an SSVEP BCI and validated in several EEG setups when using a traditional electrode cap with relocatable electrodes and a consumer-grade headset with fixed electrodes (Emotiv EPOC). We experimentally derive the parameter values that provide an acceptable tradeoff between accuracy of game control and interactivity, and evaluate the control provided by the BCI during gameplay. As a final step in the validation of the game, a population study on a broad audience was conducted with the EPOC headset in a real-world setting. The study revealed that the majority (85%) of the players enjoyed the game in spite of its intricate control (mean accuracy 80.37%, mean mission time ratio 0.90). We also discuss what to take into account while designing BCI-based games.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6334432
Pages (from-to)100-110
Number of pages11
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Brain-computer interface (BCI)
  • electroencephalography (EEG)
  • games
  • human-computer interaction
  • steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs)

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