Stationary nose structures of protons in the inner magnetosphere: Observations by the ION instrument onboard the Interball-2 satellite and modeling

NY Buzulukova*, RA Kovrazhkin, AL Glazunov, JA Sauvaud, NY Ganushkina, TI Pulkkinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Nose structures are objects formed by H+ particles penetrating into the inner magnetosphere [1, 2]. We present the results of experimental studies and numerical modeling of the nose structures. Statistical processing of the observations of nose structures in 1997 by the ION instrument onboard the Interball-2 satellite at heights of 10000-15000 km demonstrates that the probability of formation of the nose structures under quiet magnetic conditions (with current values K-p = 0-1) in the nighttime sector of the magnetosphere is similar to90%. The probability of observation of the nose structures in the daytime sector equals similar to50% at the current value K-p = 0-1, and the correlation between the observations of nose structures and Kp can be improved (up to similar to75%) if the K-p index is taken 6 h before the observed events. It is shown that nose structures are a characteristic feature not only of the substorm processes but also of quasi-stationary phenomena in the quiet magnetosphere. The nose structures observed in magnetically quiet periods are called stationary nose structures in this work. By modeling drift trajectories for protons, it is shown that the stationary nose structures are formed in all sectors of the MLT. The stationary nose structures observed by the ION instrument are modeled in the night, morning, and daytime sectors of the MLT. The relation between the stationary nose structures and ion spectral gaps is considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-12
Number of pages10
JournalCosmic Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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