State-dependent TMS effects in the visual cortex after visual adaptation: A combined TMS–EEG study

Jessica Guzmán López*, Julio C. Hernandez-Pavon, Pantelis Lioumis, Jyrki P. Mäkelä, Juha Silvanto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Objective: The impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to depend on the initial brain state of the stimulated cortical region. This observation has led to the development of paradigms that aim to enhance the specificity of TMS effects by using visual/luminance adaptation to modulate brain state prior to the application of TMS. However, the neural basis of interactions between TMS and adaptation is unknown. Here, we examined these interactions by using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure the impact of TMS over the visual cortex after luminance adaptation. Methods: Single-pulses of neuronavigated TMS (nTMS) were applied at two different intensities over the left visual cortex after adaptation to either high or low luminance. We then analyzed the effects of adaptation on the global and local cortical excitability. Results: The analysis revealed a significant interaction between the TMS-evoked responses and the adaptation condition. In particular, when nTMS was applied with high intensity, the evoked responses were larger after adaptation to high than low luminance. Conclusion: This result provides the first neural evidence on the interaction between TMS with visual adaptation. Significance: TMS can activate neurons differentially as a function of their adaptation state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)129-136
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Early online date2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Adaptation
  • Electroencephalography
  • Luminance
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Visual cortex


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