State-dependency effects on TMS: A look at motive phosphene behavior

Umer Najib*, Jared C. Horvath, Juha Silvanto, Alvaro Pascual-Leone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neurostimulatory and neuromodulatory technique that can transiently or lastingly modulate cortical excitability (either increasing or decreasing it) via the application of localized magnetic field pulses. Within the field of TMS, the term state dependency refers to the initial, baseline condition of the particular neural region targeted for stimulation. As can be inferred, the effects of TMS can (and do) vary according to this primary susceptibility and responsiveness of the targeted cortical area. In this experiment, we will examine this concept of state dependency through the elicitation and subjective experience of motive phosphenes. Phosphenes are visually perceived flashes of small lights triggered by electromagnetic pulses to the visual cortex. These small lights can assume varied characteristics depending upon which type of visual cortex is being stimulated. In this particular study, we will be targeting motive phosphenes as elicited through the stimulation of V1/V2 and the V5/MT+ complex visual regions.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2273
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number46
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Issue 46
  • Motive phosphenes
  • Neuroscience
  • State dependency
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • V1/V2
  • Visual priming


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