Spinneret geometry modulates the mechanical properties of man-made cellulose fibers

Kaniz Moriam, Daisuke Sawada, Kaarlo Nieminen, Yibo Ma, Marja Rissanen, Nicole Nygren, Chamseddine Guizani, Michael Hummel, Herbert Sixta*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
135 Downloads (Pure)


The production of cellulose-based textile fibers with high toughness is vital for extending the longevity and thus developing a sustainable textile industry by reducing the global burden of microplastics. This study presented strategies to improve fiber toughness by tuning spinneret geometries. Experimental studies were conducted by spinning with different spinneret geometries and measuring the mechanical and structural properties of the spun fibers. In addition, numerical simulation tools were used to better understand the effects of spinneret geometry. The altering parameters of the spinneret geometries were the capillary diameters D, the angle of the entry cone into the spinning capillary, and the ratio of capillary length to diameter L/D. The highest fiber toughness could be achieved at a capillary aspect ratio of 1 to 2. The obtained maximum fiber toughness was 93 MPa with a tensile strength of 60 cN/tex and a concomitant elongation of 16.5%. For these fiber properties, a 13 wt% solution of a high-purity pulp with higher viscosity in [DBNH][OAc] was spun into a 1.3 dtex fiber using a D100 spinneret with a capillary of 1:1 length/diameter and an entrance angle of 8°. It was noticeable that the microvoid orientations decreased almost linearly with increasing toughness of the fibers. The morphologies of the fibers were similar regardless of the spinneret geometries and the raw materials used in the spinning process. In summary, by modulating the spinneret geometries, Ioncell fibers obtained high toughness that have the potential to replace synthetic fibers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11165-11181
Number of pages17
Issue number17
Early online date7 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Capillary aspect ratio of spinneret
  • Dry-jet wet spinning
  • Ioncell Technology
  • Ionic liquid
  • Man-made cellulose fibers
  • Spinneret geometry
  • Toughness of cellulose fiber


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