Solid electrochemical energy storage for aqueous redox flow batteries: The case of copper hexacyanoferrate

Elena Zanzola, Solène Gentil, Grégoire Gschwend, Danick Reynard, Evgeny Smirnov, C. R. Dennison, Hubert H. Girault, Pekka Peljo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
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All redox flow batteries suffer from low energy storage density in comparison with conventional Li-ion batteries. However, this issue can be mitigated by utilization of solid energy storage materials to enhance the energy storage capacity. In this paper we demonstrate the utilization of copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) Prussian blue analogue for this purpose, coupled with N,N,N-2,2,6,6-heptamethylpiperidinyl oxy-4-ammonium chloride (TEMPTMA) as a soluble redox mediator to target the redox transitions of the solid material. In this case, indirect charging and discharging of CuHCF suspended in the electrolyte by electrochemically oxidized/reduced TEMPTMA was observed by chronoamperometry. Secondly, electrochemistry of different CuHCF composites with carbon black and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were investigated, highlighting that the high conductivity of the solid energy storage materials is crucial to access the maximal charge storage capacity. Finally, a CuHCF-TEMPTMA/Zn aqueous redox flow battery achieved stable cycling performances with high coulombic efficiency of 95% and volumetric capacity of 350 C mL−1.

Original languageEnglish
Article number134704
JournalElectrochimica Acta
Publication statusPublished - 20 Oct 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Aqueous organic redox flow batteries
  • Prussian blue analogue
  • Redox mediator
  • Solid energy storage material


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