Soil sampling with drones and augmented reality in precision agriculture

Janna Huuskonen, Timo Oksanen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

92 Citations (Scopus)
528 Downloads (Pure)


Soil sampling is an important tool to gather information for making proper decisions regarding the fertilization of fields. Depending on the national regulations, the minimum frequency may be once per five years and spatially every ten hectares. For precision farming purposes, this is not sufficient. In precision farming, the challenge is to collect the samples from such regions that are internally consistent while limiting the number of samples required. For this purpose, management zones are used to divide the field into smaller regions. This article presents a novel approach to automatically determine the locations for soil samples based on a soil map created from drone imaging after ploughing, and a wearable augmented reality technology to guide the user to the generated sample points. Finally, the article presents the results of a demonstration carried out in southern Finland.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-35
Number of pages11
JournalComputers and Electronics in Agriculture
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • AR
  • Mixed reality
  • Precision farming
  • RPAS
  • Soil analysis


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