Social capital and online hate production: A four country survey

Markus Kaakinen*, Pekka Räsänen, Matti Näsi, Jaana Minkkinen, Teo Keipi, Atte Oksanen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Hateful, threatening or degrading content has become a common part of today's online interactions. However, little is known about the people who produce such content. This study analyzes online hate content production and its associations with cognitive indicators of social capital in both offline and online social networks. The data are derived from American, Finnish, German and British Internet users aged 15-30 (N = 3,565). Measures included questions concerning online hate, social capital and contextual control variables. The results indicate that hate content production is rare overall, despite its high visibility, and is related to social capital in two key ways. First, respondents with high social capital in offline social networks were less likely to produce hate content, and second, high social capital in online networks was associated with a higher probability of production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-39
Number of pages15
JournalCRIME LAW AND SOCIAL CHANGE
Volume69
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • SELF-RATED HEALTH
  • COMMUNITY
  • EXPOSURE
  • INTERNET
  • MEDIA
  • PARTICIPATION
  • ATTRIBUTES
  • HARASSMENT
  • MULTILEVEL
  • CYBERHATE

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