Slag formation - thermodynamic aspects and experimental observations

Lauri Holappa, Yilmaz Kaçar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Slags have a central role in pyro-metallurgical processes. They bind impurity compounds and absorb reaction products like oxides and sulfides. Functional slags are made by adding lime, magnesia, fluorspar, bauxite, calcium aluminate or other compounds into the reactor vessel where they form the slag together with the targeted reaction products. Additionally, refractory materials of the vessel tend to dissolve into the slag and thus influence its properties. Converter process for steelmaking is a rapid process and slag formation is extremely essential to ensure slag’s metallurgical functions and to avoid harmful reactions with the refractory materials. In this contribution, the progress of understanding the phenomena controlling slag formation and means to promote it were shortly reviewed. Thermodynamic constraints in slag formation were examined and the influence of fluxing additions was experimentally stated. Prefabricated “self-fluxing” lime was tested in industrial scale and proved to be a potential slag forming agent. Slag formation in secondary metallurgy and reduction of slag with aluminum dross or granules were experienced, and the effect on desulfurization and steel cleanliness was discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-232
Number of pages6
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • slag formation
  • fluxes
  • thermodynamics
  • kinetics
  • mechanisms
  • BOF
  • LF


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